Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis Antibodies Igm and Igg and Associated Risk Factors of Among Positive and Negative HIV Women Attending Consultation at the Mbouo-Banjoun Presbyterian Hospital West Region of Cameroon
Keywords:Chlamydia, Seroprevalence, IgG, IgM, Antibodies, women, Cameroon
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in the genitourinary tract is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD) worldwide. Genital chlamydial infection has a huge impact on sexual and reproductive health, and it is very common in developed and developing countries. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for C. trachomatis infection in women seeking medical care in the locality of Mbouo-Banjoun West Region of Cameroon. We conducted a cross-sectional hospital-based study from November 2016 to June 2017 in which we recruited 204 consenting women aged 18 to 55 years. A questionnaire was administered to study participants and potential risk factors for Chlamydia exposure sought. Venous blood was collected and serum from each participant analysed for C. trachomatis infection as evidenced by positive anti- C. trachomatis IgG and IgM antibodies detected using the Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. The proportion of anti- C. trachomatis antibody was calculated and predictors of C. trachomatis infection analysed by univariate and multivariate regression. Epi-Info 7 was used for statistical analyses. A p < 0.05 was considered significant in all analyses. The seroprevalence of anti- C. trachomatis antibodies (IgM or IgG) was found to be 62.25% [127/204]. Among seropositive women, 37.15% [77/204] were seropositive for IgG antibodies while 47.54% [97/204] were seropositive for IgM antibodies and 23.04% [47/204] where seropositive for both IgM and IgG antibodies. Among the risk factors evaluated, marital status (P= 0.03) and knowledge of Chlamydia (P= 0.001) were observed to be an independent risk factor of C. trachomatis infection. Our findings suggest recent C. trachomatis exposure is high in our study population, and may constitute a significant risk factor for, ocular and pulmonary infection in new born child, infertility to women. Education and screening of HIV-positive individuals and pregnant women for C. trachomatis infection may be important primary prevention strategies in this population.