Trump’s covid-19 treatment: Can we offer it to other patients in the world
Keywords:Trump’s covid-19, evidence-based therapies, medical ethics.
Covid-19 is a viral illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease was first reported during December, 2019, in Wuhan, Hubei in China. On Thursday, the first of October 2020, the White House of the USA declared that the president of the USA, Donald Trump had a positive test for SARS-CoV-2. He initially had mild symptoms which included mostly, hoarseness, lethargy, and fatigue. The treatment received by a patient “Donald Trump” who was considered the most powerful person in the world is studied, and this paper assumed that all the patients in the world are as important as Mr. Trump and tries to offer the best evidence-treatment for them. Most media including the CNN television channel rightly confirmed that Mr. Trump has been treated by the best doctors in the world with best therapies that could possibly help him in defeating the virus. The CNN, in various programs during the first week of October, emphasized that, American citizens with Covid-19 are not receiving the same treatments as their president Donald Trump. Trump aged 74 years and initially had mild symptoms which included mostly, hoarseness, lethargy, and fatigue. His age, obesity and mildly elevated cholesterol were considered risk factors that may reduce the likelihood of having very favorable outcome. It was reported that he initially took hydroxychloroquine, an anti-malarial drug. The use of a therapeutic approach including experimental antibody therapy, remdesivir and dexamethasone has not been reported as a treatment for one patient before other than Mr. Trump. Obviously, of the three important therapies, only dexamethasone can be offered to almost all the patients with covid-19. It seems that, the most important factors that made treatment of Donald Trump effective and successful are: 1-The early institution of therapy regardless of the generally accepted recommendations.
2-The use of multiple drugs as none of the available drug alone can guarantee successful treatment.
Al-Mosawi AJ. Bat-Human Coronaviruses: A Global Health Problem and a Therapeutic Challenge. Journal of Medical Clinical Case Reports 2020; 2(2) 1-3. Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3878405
Al-Mosawi AJ. Bat-human coronaviruses: Keys to the therapeutic challenge.1st ed., Saarbrücken; LAP Lambert Academic Publishing: 2020 (ISBN: 978-620-0-47386-8).
Al-Mosawi AJ. Bat-human Coronaviruses: Keys to The Therapeutic Challenge .1st ed., Baghdad; Iraq Headquarter of Copernicus Scientists International Panel Publishing: 2020 (ISBN: 978-1-67804-171-7). Al-Mosawi AJ. The Use of the Available Research Evidence to Crack the Padlock of Sars-CoV-2. Journal of Virology Research & Reports 2020; 1 (1):1-8 Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3970844
Al-Mosawi AJ.Using research evidence to crack the padlock of SARS-CoV-2. 1st ed., LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Saarbrücken; Germany, 2020 (ISBN: 978-620-2-67319-8).
Al-Mosawi AJ.The use of the available research evidence to crack the padlock of SARS-CoV-2.1st ed., Baghdad; Iraq Headquarter of Copernicus Scientists International Panel Publishing: 2020 (ISBN: 9798655618800).
Al-Mosawi AJ. Trump’s covid-19 treatment: Is there any better approach? Scholar’s press: 2020 (ISBN-13: 978-613-8-94295-5, ISBN-10: 6138942957).
Al-Mosawi AJ. Remdesivir research progress: An overview of the emerging evidence. Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences 2020 Oct 14; 6(10): 216-218. Doi: 10.37871/jbres1146
Warren TK, Jordan R, Lo MK, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of the small molecule GS-5734 against Ebola virus in rhesus monkeys [published correction appears in ACS Chem Biol. 2016 May 20;11(5):1463]. Nature 2016; 531(7594):381-385. PMID: 26934220 Doi: 10. 1038/nature17180
Pedersen NC, Perron M, Bannasch M, et al. Efficacy and safety of the nucleoside analog GS-441524 for treatment of cats with naturally occurring feline infectious peritonitis. J Feline Med Surg 2019; 21(4):271-281. PMID: 30755068. Doi: 10. 1177/ 1098612 X198 25701
de Wit E, Feldmann F, Cronin J, et al. Prophylactic and therapeutic remdesivir (GS-5734) treatment in the rhesus macaque model of MERS-CoV infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2020; 117(12):6771-6776. PMID: 32054787 .Doi:10.1073/pnas.1922083117
Wang Y, Zhang D, Du G, et al. Remdesivir in adults with severe COVID-19: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial [published correction appears in Lancet. 2020 May 30; 395(10238):1694]. Lancet 2020; 395(10236):1569-1578. PMID: 32423584. Doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9
Beigel JH, Tomashek KM, Dodd LE, et al. Remdesivir for the Treatment of Covid-19 -Preliminary Report [published online ahead of print, 2020 May 22]. N Engl J Med 2020; NEJMoa2007764. PMID: 32445440. Doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2007764
RECOVERY Collaborative Group, Horby P, Lim WS, Emberson JR, Mafham M, Bell JL, Linsell L, Staplin N, Brightling C, Ustianowski A, Elmahi E, Prudon B, Green C, Felton T, Chadwick D, Rege K, Fegan C, Chappell LC, Faust SN, Jaki T, Jeffery K, Montgomery A, Rowan K, Juszczak E, Baillie JK, Haynes R, Landray MJ. Dexamethasone in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19 - Preliminary Report. N Engl J Med. 2020 Jul 17:NEJMoa2021436. PMID: 32678530. Doi: 10.1056/ NEJMoa 2021436.
Keyaerts E, Vijgen L, Maes P, Neyts J, Van Ranst. In vitro inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus by chloroquine. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2004; 323 (1): 264-8. PMID: 15351731.
Gao J, Tian Z, Yang X. Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies. Bioscience Trends. 14: 72-73. PMID: 32074550.
Min JY, Jang YJ. Macrolide therapy in respiratory viral infections. Mediators Inflamm 2012; 2012:649570.
Tran DH, Sugamata R, Hirose T, et al. Azithromycin, a 15-membered macrolide antibiotics, inhibits influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus infection by interfering with virus internalization process. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 2019; 72:759-768.
Bosseboeuf E, Aubry M, Nhan T, Pina JJ, Rolain JM, Raoult D, Musso D. Azithromycin inhibits the replication Zika virus. J Antivir Antietrovir 2018; 10:6-11.
Madrid PB, Panchal RG, Warren TK, Shurtleff AC, Endsley AN, Green CE, Kolokoltsov A, Davey R, Manger ID, Gilfillan L, Bavari S, Tanga MJ. Evaluation of Ebola virus inhibitors for drug repurposing. ACS Infect Dis. 2015; 1:317-326.
Gautret P, Lagier JC, Parola P, et al. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020; 20:105949.
Sen Gupta PS, Biswal S, Singha D, Rana MK. Binding insight of clinically oriented drug famotidine with the identified potential target of SARS-CoV-2. J Biomol Struct Dyn 2020 Jun 24:1-7. PMID: 32579065. Doi: 10.1080/07391102.2020.1784795.
Ortega JT, Serrano ML, Jastrzebska B. Class A G Protein-Coupled Receptor Antagonist Famotidine as a Therapeutic Alternative Against SARS-CoV2: An In Silico Analysis. Biomolecules 2020 Jun 24; 10(6):954. PMID: 32599963. Doi: 10.3390/biom10060954.
Hogan Ii RB, Hogan Iii RB, Cannon T, Rappai M, Studdard J, Paul D, Dooley TP. Dual-histamine receptor blockade with cetirizine - famotidine reduces pulmonary symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2020 Aug; 63:101942. PMID: 32871242Doi: 10.1016/j.pupt.2020.101942.
Mather JF, Seip RL, McKay RG. Impact of famotidine use on clinical outcomes of hospitalized patients with covid-19. Am J Gastroenterol 2020 Oct; 115(10):1617-1623. PMID: 32852338.Doi: 10.14309/ ajg.00000 00000000832.
Janowitz T, Gablenz E, Pattinson D, Wang TC, Conigliaro J, Tracey K, Tuveson D. Famotidine use and quantitative symptom tracking for COVID-19 in non-hospitalised patients: a case series. Gut 2020 Sep; 69(9):1592-1597. PMID: 32499303 Doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2020-321852.
Freedberg DE, Conigliaro J, Wang TC, Tracey KJ, Callahan MV, Abrams JA; Famotidine Research Group. Famotidine Use Is Associated With Improved Clinical Outcomes in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: A Propensity Score Matched Retrospective Cohort Study. Gastroenterology 2020 Sep; 159(3):1129-1131.e3. PMID: 32446698. Doi: 10.1053/j.gastro. 2020.05.053.
Baron SA, Devaux C, Colson P, Raoult D, Rolain JM. Teicoplanin: an alternative drug for the treatment of coronavirus COVID-19? Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020 Mar 13:105944. PMID: 32179150.
Wang Y, Cui R, Li G, Gao Q, Yuan S, Altmeyer R, Zou G. Teicoplanin inhibits Ebola pseudovirus infection in cell culture. Antiviral Res 2016 Jan; 125:1-7. PMID: 26585243.
Sato M, Chida K, Suda T, Muramatsu H, Suzuki Y, Hashimoto H, Gemma H, Nakamura H. Recommended initial loading dose of teicoplanin, established by therapeutic drug monitoring, and outcome in terms of optimal trough level. J Infect Chemother 2006 Aug; 12(4):185-9. PMID: 16944256.
Al-Mosawi AJ. Использование данных исследований для взлома замка SARS-CoV-2 (Russian edition) Sciencia Scripts: 2020 (ISBN-13:978-620-2-60758-2).
Al-Mosawi AJ. Utilização de provas de investigação para rachar o cadeado da SRA-CoV-2 (Portuguese edition) .Edições Nosso Conhecimento: 2020 (ISBN-13: 978-620-2-60757-5).
Al-Mosawi AJ. Użycie dowodów naukowych do złamania kłódki SARS-CoV-2 (Polish edition) Wnictwo Nasza Wiedza: 2020 (ISBN-13: 978-620-2-60756-8).
Al-Mosawi AJ. Gebruik van onderzoeksmateriaal voor het kraken van het hangslot van SARS-CoV-2 (Dutch edition). Uitgeverij Onze kennis: 2020 (ISBN-13:978-620-2-60755-1).
Al-Mosawi AJ. Utilizzare le prove della ricerca per rompere il lucchetto della SARS-CoV-2 (Italian edition) Edizioni Sapien: 2020 (ISBN-13: 978-620-2-60753-7).
Al-Mosawi AJ. Utilisation des résultats de la recherche pour briser le cadenas du SRAS-CoV-2 (French edition) Editions Notre Savoir: 2020 (ISBN-13: 978-620-2-60752-0).
Al-Mosawi AJ. El uso de pruebas de investigación para romper el candado del SARS-CoV-2 (Spanish edition). Ediciones Nuestro Conocimiento: 2020 (ISBN-13:978-620-2-60751-3)
Al-Mosawi AJ. Verwendung von Forschungsergebnissen zum Knacken des Vorhängeschlosses von SARS-CoV-2 (German edition). Verlag Unser Vissen: 2020 (ISBN-13:978-620-2-60750-6).